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The ROUNDUP function works like the ROUND function, except the ROUNDUP function will always round numbers up. The number of places to round to is controlled by the num_digits argument. Positive numbers round to the right of the decimal point, negative numbers round to the left, and zero rounds to the nearest 1. The table below summarizes this behavior:
Digits Behavior
Round up to nearest .1, .01, .001, etc.
Round up to nearest 10, 100, 1000, etc.
=0 Round up to nearest 1
Example #1 – round to right
To round up values to the right of the decimal point, use a positive number for digits:
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,
1
)
// Round up to 1 decimal place
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,
2
)
// Round up to 2 decimal places
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,
3
)
// Round up to 3 decimal places
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,
4
)
// Round up to 4 decimal places
Example #2 – round to left
To round up values to the left of the decimal point, use zero or a negative number for digits:
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,
0
)
// Round up to nearest whole number
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,

1
)
// Round up to nearest 10
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,

2
)
// Round up to nearest 100
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,

3
)
// Round up to nearest 1000
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1,

4
)
// Round up to nearest 10000
Example #3 – nesting
Other operations and functions can be nested inside the ROUNDUP function. For example, to round the result of A1 divided by B1, you can use a formula like this:
=
ROUNDUP
(
A1/
B1,
0
)
// round up result to nearest whole number
Rounding functions in Excel
To round normally, use the ROUND function.
To round to the nearest multiple, use the MROUND function.
To round down to the nearest specified place, use the ROUNDDOWN function.
To round down to the nearest specified multiple, use the FLOOR function.
To round up to the nearest specified place, use the ROUNDUP function.
To round up to the nearest specified multiple, use the CEILING function.
To round down and return an integer only, use the INT function.
To truncate decimal places, use the TRUNC function.
How To Use The Excel Countifs Function
The COUNTIFS function in Excel counts the number of cells in a range that match one supplied criteria. Unlike the older COUNTIF function, COUNTIFS can apply more more than one condition at the same time. Conditions are supplied with range/criteria pairs, and only the first pair is required. For each additional condition, you must supply another range/criteria pair. Up to 127 range/criteria pairs are allowed.
COUNTIFS is in a group of eight functions in Excel that split logical criteria into two parts (range + criteria). As a result, the syntax used to construct criteria is different, and COUNTIFS requires a cell range for range arguments, you can’t use an array.
Basic example
With the example shown, COUNTIFS can be used to count records using 2 criteria as follows:
=
COUNTIFS
(
C5:C14,
"red"
,
D5:D14,
"tx"
)
// red and TX
Notice the COUNTIFS function is not casesensitive.
Double quotes ("") in criteria
In general, text values need to be enclosed in double quotes, and numbers do not. However, when a logical operator is included with a number, the number and operator must be enclosed in quotes as shown below:
=
COUNTIFS
(
A1:A10,
100
)
// count equal to 100
=
COUNTIFS
(
A1:A10,
"jim"
)
// count equal to "jim"
Note: showing one condition only for simplicity. Additional conditions must follow the same rules.
Value from another cell
When using a value from another cell in a condition, the cell reference must be concatenated to an operator when used. In the example below, COUNTIFS will count the values in A1:A10 that are less than the value in cell B1. Notice the less than operator (which is text) is enclosed in quotes, but the cell reference is not:
=
COUNTIFS
(
A1:A10,
"<"
&
B1)
// count cells less than B1
Note: COUNTIFS is one of several functions that split conditions into two parts: range + criteria. This causes some inconsistencies with respect to other formulas and functions.
Not equal to
To construct "not equal to" criteria, use the "" operator surrounded by double quotes (""). For example, the formula below will count cells not equal to "red" in the range A1:A10:
Blank cells
COUNTIFS can count cells that are blank or not blank. The formulas below count blank and not blank cells in the range A1:A10:
=
COUNTIFS
(
A1:A10,
""
)
// blank
Dates
The easiest way to use COUNTIFS with dates is to refer to a valid date in another cell with a cell reference. For example, to count cells in A1:A10 that contain a date greater than a date in B1, you can use a formula like this:
The safest way hardcode a date into COUNTIFS is with the DATE function. This guarantees Excel will understand the date. To count cells in A1:A10 that contain a date less than September 1, 2020, you can use:
=
COUNTIFS
(
A1:A10,
"<"
&
DATE
(
2020
,
9
,
1
))
// dates less than 1Sep2020
Wildcards
The wildcard characters question mark (?), asterisk(*), or tilde (~) can be used in criteria. A question mark (?) matches any one character, and an asterisk (*) matches zero or more characters of any kind. For example, to count cells in a A1:A5 that contain the text "apple" anywhere, you can use a formula like this:
=
COUNTIFS
(
A1:A5,
"*apple*"
)
// count cells that contain "apple"
The tilde (~) is an escape character to allow you to find literal wildcards. For example, to count a literal question mark (?), asterisk(*), or tilde (~), add a tilde in front of the wildcard (i.e. ~?, ~*, ~~).
Notes
Multiple conditions are applied with AND logic, i.e. condition 1 AND condition 2, etc.
Each additional range must have the same number of rows and columns as range1, but ranges do not need to be adjacent. If you supply ranges that don't match, you'll get a #VALUE error.
The wildcard characters ? and * can be used in criteria. A question mark matches any one character and an asterisk matches any sequence of characters.
To find a literal question mark or asterisk, use a tilde (~) in front question mark or asterisk (i.e. ~?, ~*).
How To Use The Excel Sumif Function
SUMIF is in a group of eight functions in Excel that split logical criteria into two parts (range + criteria). As a result, the syntax used to construct criteria is different, and SUMIF requires a cell range for the range argument, you can’t use an array.
SUMIF only supports a single condition. If you need to apply multiple criteria, use the SUMIFS function. If you need to manipulate values that appear in the range argument (i.e. extract the year from dates to use in criteria) see the SUMPRODUCT and/or FILTER functions.
Videos
Basic usage
In the worksheet shown, there are three SUMIF examples. In the first example (G6), SUMIF is configured to sum values greater than 100. In the second example (G7), SUMIF returns the sum of values where the color is “red”. In the last example (G8), SUMIF is configured to sum values where the state is “CA” (California).
=
SUMIF
(
B6:B10,
"Jim"
,
D6:D10)
// Rep = Jim
=
SUMIF
(
C6:C10,
"ca"
,
D6:D10)
// State = CA
Notice the equals sign (=) is not required when constructing “is equal to” criteria. Also notice SUMIF is not casesensitive. You can sum values where the Rep is Jim using “jim” or “Jim”.
Criteria in another cell
Not equal to
To express "not equal to" criteria, use the "" operator surrounded by double quotes (""):
Again notice SUMIF is not casesensitive.
Blank cells
SUMIF can calculate sums based on cells that are blank or not blank. In the example below, SUMIF is used to sum the amounts in column C depending on whether column D contains "x" or is empty:
=
SUMIF
(
D5:D9,
""
,
C5:C9)
// blank
The best way to use SUMIF with dates is to refer to a valid date in another cell, or use the DATE function. The example below shows both methods:
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"<"
&
DATE
(
2019
,
3
,
1
),
C5:C9)
Wildcards
The SUMIF function supports wildcards, as seen in the example below:
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"mi*"
,
C5:C9)
// begins with "mi"
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"*ota"
,
C5:C9)
// ends with "ota"
=
SUMIF
(
B5:B9,
"????"
,
C5:C9)
// contains 4 characters
See below for more SUMIF formula examples.
Notes
SUMIF only supports one condition. Use the SUMIFS function for multiple criteria.
When sum_range is omitted, the cells in range will be summed.
Cell references in criteria are not enclosed in quotes, i.e. "
The wildcard characters ? and * can be used in criteria. A question mark matches any one character and an asterisk matches any sequence of characters (zero or more).
To find a literal question mark or asterisk, use a tilde (~) in front question mark or asterisk (i.e. ~?, ~*).
SUMIFS requires a range, you can't substitute an array.
How To Use The Excel Subtotal Function
Use the SUBTOTAL function to get a subtotal in a list or database. Despite the name, SUBTOTAL has the ability to perform a variety of math functions, including AVERAGE, COUNT, MAX, and many others (see table below for the complete list). SUBTOTAL returns an aggregate result from a set of data. By default, SUBTOTAL excludes values in rows hidden by a filter, which makes SUBTOTAL very useful in Excel Tables.
The SUBTOTAL function automatically ignores other SUBTOTAL formulas that exist in references to prevent doublecounting.
Examples
Below are a few examples of SUBTOTAL configured to SUM, COUNT, and AVERAGE the values in a range. Notice the only difference is the value used for the function_num argument:
=
SUBTOTAL
(
109
,
range)
// SUM
=
SUBTOTAL
(
103
,
range)
// COUNT
=
SUBTOTAL
(
101
,
range)
// AVERAGE
Available calculations
SUBTOTAL behavior is controlled by the function_num argument, which is provided as a numeric value. There are 11 functions available, each with two options, as seen in the table below. Notice the values are “paired” (e.g. 1101, 2102, 3103, and so on). This is related to how SUBTOTAL deals with manually hidden rows. When function_num is between 111, SUBTOTAL includes cells that have been manually hidden. When function_num is between 101111, SUBTOTAL excludes values in rows that have been manually hidden.
Function Include hidden Ignore hidden
AVERAGE 1 101
COUNT 2 102
COUNTA 3 103
MAX 4 104
MIN 5 105
PRODUCT 6 106
STDEV 7 107
STDEVP 8 108
SUM 9 109
VAR 10 110
VARP 11 111
Note: SUBTOTAL always ignores values in cells that are hidden with a filter. Values in rows that have been “filtered out” are never included, regardless of function_num.
SUBTOTAL in Excel Tables
The SUBTOTAL function is used when you display a Total row in an Excel Table. Excel inserts the SUBTOTAL function automatically, and you can use a dropdown menu to switch behavior and show max, min, average, etc. The reason Excel uses SUBTOTAL for calculations in the Total row of an Excel Table is because SUBTOTAL automatically excludes rows hidden by the filter controls at the top of the table. That is, as you filter rows in a table with a Total row, you’ll see the calculations update automatically to respect the filter.
SUBTOTAL with outlines
Note: although the Outline feature is an “easy” way to insert subtotals in a set of data, a Pivot Table is a better and more flexible way to analyze data. In addition, a Pivot Table will separate the data from the presentation of the data, which is a best practice.
Notes
When function_num is between 111, SUBTOTAL includes values that are hidden
When function_num is between 101111, SUBTOTAL excludes values that are hidden
In filtered lists, SUBTOTAL always ignores values in hidden rows, regardless of function_num.
SUBTOTAL ignores other SUBTOTAL formulas that exist in references to prevent doublecounting.
SUBTOTAL is designed to work with vertical data values arranged vertically. In horizontal ranges, values in hidden columns are always included.
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